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谷雨Grain Rain

谷雨,是二十四節氣之第6個節氣,春季的最后一個節氣。斗指辰;太陽黃經為30°;于每年公歷4月19日—21日交節。谷雨是“雨生百谷”的意思,此時降水明顯增加,田中的秧苗初插、作物新種,最需要雨水的滋潤,正所謂“春雨貴如油”。降雨量充足而及時,谷類作物能茁壯成長。谷雨與雨水、小滿、小雪、大雪等節氣一樣,都是反映降水現象的節氣,是古代農耕文化對于節令的反映。 [1-2]

谷雨時節,在中國南方地區,往往開始明顯多雨,而特別是華南,一旦冷空氣與暖濕空氣交匯,往往形成較長時間的降雨天氣。秦嶺—淮河是南方春雨和北方春旱區之間的過渡地區,從秦嶺-淮河附近向北,春雨急劇減少。 [3-4]

由于谷雨節氣后降雨增多,空氣中的濕度逐漸加大。谷雨節氣后是神經痛的發病期。同時天氣轉溫,室外活動增加。在飲食上應減少高蛋白質、高熱量食物的攝入。

民間習俗

祭倉頡
清明祭黃帝,谷雨祭倉頡,是自漢代以來流傳千年的民間傳統。據《淮南子》記載,黃帝于春末夏初發布詔令,宣布倉頡造字成功,當天下了一場谷子雨。倉頡死后,人們把他安葬在他的家鄉——白水縣史官鎮北,墓門刻了一副對聯:“雨粟當年感天帝,同文永世配橋陵。”每年的谷雨,“倉頡廟會”都會在陜西白水縣如期舉行。 [10]
“吃春”
谷雨前后,香椿醇香爽口營養價值高,故有“雨前香椿嫩如絲”之說。人們把春天采摘、食用香椿說成是“吃春”。香椿一般分為紫椿芽、綠椿芽,尤以紫椿芽最佳。鮮椿芽中含豐富的蛋白質、胡蘿卜素和大量的維生素C,其葉、芽、根、皮和果實均可入藥,具有健胃理氣,止瀉潤膚等多種功效。 [10]
賞牡丹
“谷雨三朝看牡丹”,牡丹花被稱為谷雨花、富貴花,谷雨時節賞牡丹已綿延千年。清顧祿《清嘉錄》曰:“神祠別館筑商人,谷雨看花局一新。不信相逢無國色,錦棚只護玉樓春。”至今,山東菏澤、河南洛陽都會在谷雨時節舉行牡丹花會,供人們觀賞游玩。 [10]
喝谷雨茶
福建的茶農們說,真正的谷雨茶就是谷雨這天采的鮮茶葉制成的茶葉,而且要上午采的。谷雨茶色澤翠綠,葉質柔軟,富含多種維生素和氨基酸,香氣宜人。傳說谷雨這天的茶喝了會清火、辟邪、明目等。所以谷雨這天不管是什么天氣,人們都會去茶山摘一些新茶回來喝。 [10]
祭海
谷雨節也叫做漁民出海捕魚的“壯行節”。在中國北方沿海一帶,漁民們過谷雨節已有兩千多年的歷史。海祭時刻一到,漁民便抬著供品到海神廟、娘娘廟前擺供祭祀,有的則將供品抬至海邊,敲鑼打鼓,燃放鞭炮,面海祭祀,場面十分隆重,這一習俗在今天膠東榮成一帶仍然流行。 [10]
走谷雨
古時有“走谷雨”的風俗,谷雨這天青年婦女走村串親,有的到野外走一圈就回來。寓意與自然相融合,強身健體。 [11]
谷雨貼
谷雨貼,禁殺五毒,谷雨以后氣溫升高,病蟲害進入高繁衍期,為了減輕病蟲害對作物及人的傷害,農家一邊進田滅蟲,一邊張貼谷雨貼,進行驅兇納吉的祈禱。這一習俗在山東、山西、陜西一帶十分流行。舊時,山西臨汾一帶谷雨日畫張天師符貼在門上,名曰“禁蝎”。陜西風翔一帶的禁蝎咒符,以木刻印制,可見需求量是很大的。其上印有:“谷雨三月中,蝎子逞威風。神雞叼一嘴,毒蟲化為水……”畫面中央雄雞銜蟲,爪下還有一只大蝎子。畫上印有咒符。雄雞治蝎的說法早在民間流傳。山東民俗也禁蝎。清乾隆六年《夏津縣志》記:“谷雨,朱砂書符禁蝎。”“禁蝎”的民俗反應了人們驅除害蟲及渴望豐收平安的心情。
谷雨貼,屬于年畫的一種,上面刻繪神雞捉蝎、天師除五毒形象或道教神符,有的還附有諸如“太上老君如律令,谷雨三月中,蛇蝎永不生”、“谷雨三月中,老君下天空,手持七星劍,單斬蝎子精”等文字說明,寄托人們查殺害蟲、盼望豐收、安寧的心理。
賞花
谷雨前后也是牡丹花開的重要時段,因此,牡丹花也被稱為“谷雨花”。“谷雨三朝看牡丹”,賞牡丹成為人們閑暇重要的娛樂活動。

 

(中文介紹節選自百度百科https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%B0%B7%E9%9B%A8/6959?fromtitle=Grain%20Rain&fromid=11257789&fr=aladdin),旨在傳揚中華傳統

 

The traditional Chinese lunar calendar divides the year into 24 solar terms. Grain Rain (Chinese: 谷雨),as the last term in spring, starts on April 20 and ends on May 5. Grain Rain originates from the old saying, "Rain brings up the growth of hundreds of grains," which shows that this period of rainfall is extremely important for the growth of crops. The Grain Rain signals the end of cold weather and a rapid rise in temperature. Here are five things that you may not know about the Grain Rain.

Key time for agriculture

Grain Rain brings a marked increase in temperature and rainfall and the grains grow faster and stronger. It's a key time to protect the crops from insect pests.

Sandstorms occur

Grain Rain falls between the end of spring and the beginning of summer, with infrequent cold air moving to the southand lingering cold air in the north. From the end of April to the beginning of May, the temperature rises much higher than it does in March. With dry soil, an unsteady atmosphere and heavy winds, gales and sandstorms become more frequent.

Drinking tea

There is an old custom in southern China that people drink tea on the day of Grain Rain. Spring tea during Grain Rain is rich in vitamins and amino acids, which can help to remove heat from the body and is good for the eyes. It is also said that drinking tea on this day would prevent bad luck.

Eating toona sinensis

People in northern China have the tradition to eat the vegetable toona sinensis during Grain Rain. An old Chinese saying goes "toona sinensis before the rain is as tender as silk". The vegetable is nutritious and can help to stengthen the immunie system. It is also good for the stomach and skin.

Grain Rain Festival

The Grain Rain festival is celebrated by fishing villages in the coastal areas of northern China. Grain Rain marks the start of the fishermen’s first voyage of the year. The custom dates back more than 2,000 years ago, when people believed they owed a good harvest to the gods, who protected them from the stormy seas. People would worship the sea and stage sacrifice rites on the Grain Rain festival, praying for a bountiful harvest and a safe voyagel for their loved ones.

(English introduction is from ChinaDaily http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/culture/2015-04/20/content_20468714.htm)

 

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