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兩岸經理人工作價值觀比較研究
1.1研究意義
1.1 Research Significance
人類是社會化動物,群居是生活常態,物種競爭與環境演變,是不可避免的壓力,種種情境潛移默化下,產生取舍、判斷的信念(Kluckhohn , 1951a ) .人類因為擁有”價值觀”而不同于其它生物,人類也以價值觀作為互相理解、預測行為或群體認同的重要指標。
Human beings are social animals that normally live in groups. Species competition and environmental evolution are unavoidable pressure for them. Under the unobtrusive influence of various situations, the belief of options and determinations is generated inside human (Kluckhohn, 1951a). Human beings differ from other creatures for their “values”, which are regarded as an important indicator of mutual understanding, behavior prediction or group identification.
中國哲人莊子(BC369 -286 )說:“藏于內,形于外”,學者Kalleberg (1997a)也認為人類外顯行為即是動機、情境、能力與態度的相乘效果,其中動機、態度偏好、需求、利益與目的等來構成工作價值觀的內涵(Kalleberg , 1977b ) ,工作價值觀是人們對各種人生需求之重視程度的反應,它在工作態度和工作行為起重要的作用(Buchholz , 1978 ; Pufferetal. , 1997 ) ,許多研究證實”工作價值觀”與個人工作領域各項表現息息相關(crain , 1974 ; Kalleberg , 1977 :許士軍,1977 ; Funderburg , 1966 ;李麗華,2000 ) ,包括個人工作規劃選擇、工作態度、工作滿意度、組織認同、績效表現等。Fishbein ( 1967 )曾提出工作價值觀影響工作表現和工作態度的概念模式,他認為工作價值觀首先塑造員工工作態度(工作滿足與組織承諾),接著影響行為意圖(離職或努力工作的念頭),最后,將意圖具體化為行動(離職、缺勤或績效表現)。 www.cressdesign.com
Chuang Tzu (BC 369-286), a Chinese ancient philosopher, once said, “The essence hidden inside will show itself outside.” Scholar Kalleberg (1997a) also believes that the extrinsic behaviors of human beings are the multiplied effect of motives, situations, capabilities and attitudes. Motivates, attitude preference, needs, interest and purposes constitute the connotation of work values (Kalleberg, 1977b). Work value is the response of people to the emphasis of all kinds of different life needs, which plays an important role in work attitudes and behaviors (Buchholz, 1978; Pufferetal, 1997). Many researches have proved that “work values” have a close relationship with all kinds of behaviors in individual’s work area (Crain, 1974; Kalleberg, 1977; Xu Shijun, 1977; Funderburg, 1966; Li Lihua, 2000), including personal work planning and choices, work attitudes, work satisfaction, organization identification and performance and so on. Fishbein (1967) once proposed a conceptual model of the influence of work values on work behavior and attitude. He believes that work values firstly foster work attitude of employees (work satisfaction and organizational commitment), and then influence behavioral intentions (for job-quitting or hard-working), and finally the intentions will be turned into behaviors (quitting, absence from work or performance).
經理人乃是企業的核心角色,在現今中國經濟發達、人才快速崛起的社會中,各企業所引用的人才,早己廣泛適用各個國家,而臺灣乃和中國同源同種,在中國對臺灣開放經濟改革將近二十年以來,臺籍干部已漸漸在中國扎根晉升為臺灣經理人,雖然如此,兩岸企業中的主管和下屬,并沒有因為長時間的互動了解而關系更融洽,因此若了解兩岸經理人的工作價值觀,對在中國不同的企業中,便可藉此進而提高下屬員工的工作滿意度、組織承諾、公民行為,直接或間接的規范員工服務態度,經理人將能力與態度轉化為服務價值,企業組織即是藉著”服務價值”交換顧客忠誠度來獲取利潤。工作價值觀、服務價值、企業利潤這三者的因果關系,形成環環相扣的服務價值利潤圈(Fishbein & Ajzen , 1994 )。
Managers are the core of enterprises. In the modern Chinese society with advanced economy and rapid rise of talents, competent people introduced by all enterprises have been widely applicable to all of the countries. Taiwan and Chinese Mainland share common ancestors. During the past twenty years since the opening-up of the economy of Chinese Mainland to Taiwan, the cadres from Taiwan have gradually taken root and been promoted to the positions of managers. Nevertheless, the relationship between directors and their subordinates in the enterprises on both sides of the Strait has not been more harmonious for long-term interaction. Therefore, if work values of managers are made clear, work satisfactory, organizational commitment and citizen behaviors of employees in different enterprises of China can be improved to directly or indirectly regulate service attitude of employees. Managers turn ability and attitude into service value, and it is with service value that enterprise organizations exchange client loyalty and make profits. Causal relationship among work value, service value and enterprise profit forms a close the service profit chain (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1994).


 
 
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