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物理 中英
光的本質與引力場
The Nature of Light and Gravitational Field
人類觀察世界依賴于光的反射等特性,從遙遠的宇宙星空到自身的DNA的具體結構。目前只能觀測比‘光子’大的物體(包括雷達),這是目前的極限和瓶頸。發現比‘光子’小的物體,了解其形態和特性是個難題。光是粒子還是光波是個難題,量子物理學認為光是粒子,光學、宇宙學認為光是一種電磁波,兩者都能以具體物理實踐為論據。從1663年開始的“波粒戰爭”,幾百年爭論的結果是一種折衷的妥協,即光既具有波動性又具有粒子性。波爾指出,波粒二相性取決于我們怎樣觀察。但是這種妥協只能在光的特性上達成共識并在實踐中應用。那么這個具有波粒二相性‘光’的實質是什么?物質的最基本構成是什么?我們不能永遠把觀測不到的物質歸于‘暗物質’。既然現有的觀察手段無法觀測到比‘光’更小的物質,我們能否換種思路來思考這種更小的物質。
Humans depend on the reflection of light in order to observe the world; anywhere from the remote cosmic starry sky to their own DNA structure. At present, only objects larger than photons can be observed (including using radars); this is the limit and bottleneck encountered today. It is a challenge to discover objects smaller than photons as well as to understand their forms and characteristics. The problem exists whether light is in a form of particles or waves. It is thought that in quantum physics light is in the form of particles, while in optics and cosmology light is thought to be in the form of electromagnetic waves. Both theories can satisfy specific arguments in physical practice. The “wave verses particle war” began in 1663, but the outcome of the argument that has lasted for centuries is a compromise that believes light has both the nature of wave and the nature of particle. It was pointed out by Bohr that the wave-particle duality depends on how we observe it. However, this compromise can only be reached within the characteristics of light and applied only in practice. Hence, what is the true nature of the “light” with such wave-particle duality? What is the most elementary composition of matter? We cannot always attribute unobservable matters as “dark matters”. Since it is impossible to observe matters smaller than “light” with our existing means of observation, can we not change our way of thinking and consider such smaller matters?
以太的假設經過胡克、惠更斯、托馬斯?楊、菲涅耳、阿拉果、麥克斯韋、麥克爾遜、法拉第、赫茲的探索發展,認為光是產生電磁現象的媒質(以太)的橫振動,光的波動學說是光學和天文學的重要基石和支柱。但是,基于舊的以太理論,如果以太作為絕對靜止參照系,由于地球公轉,地球表面理應存在每秒三十公里的以太風,但麥克爾遜和莫雷的實驗結果,得出了光與參考系無關的結論。這個實驗是物理發展史上一個重大轉折點。愛因斯坦也認為:“由于你無法探測出你是否相對于以太運動,因此關于以太的概念是多余的”。 雖然以太假說不僅為電磁理論所要求,而且也受到雙縫干涉實驗、光行差現象和斐索實驗的支持,但是以太假說還是被徹底拋棄。
After the ether hypothesis was explored and developed by Hook, Huygens, Thomas Yang, Fresnel, Arago, Maxwell, Michelson, Faraday and Hertz, it is thought that light creates a transverse vibration in the medium (ether) as it generates the electromagnetic phenomenon, thus, the wave theory of light is an important cornerstone and pillar in optics and astronomy. However, based on the old ether theory, if we take ether as an absolutely static frame of reference there should be an ether wind of 30 km/s on the surface of the earth due to the rotation of the earth. However, the experimental results of Michelson and Morley revealed that light has nothing to do with reference. This experiment was a major turning point in the history of physics. Einstein also said, “As one cannot detect movement in the relativity to ether, the concept about the ether is excessive.” Although the ether hypothesis was required by the electromagnetic theories, supported by the double-slit interference experiment, the light aberration phenomenon and the Fizeau experiment, it was still completely abandoned.



 
 
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